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Official website of Şoimuş

History

Documentary attestation - In terms of documentary attestation of the commune’s settlements , Soimus village is reminded for the first time in a document in 1278.According to this document, Paul of Severin, attests that he gave to the capitular church from Strigoniu, saline from Turda, with the condition to give to the “Biserica Sfintei Fecioare din Soimus” tithe of the salt coming from that saline. In 1330 are documentary attested Bejan,Cainel and Sulighete,Paulisul (Buruene) in 1440, Chiscadaga and Boholt villages are attested in 1453,and in 1499 is reminded in documents Fornadia village. Balata is reminded in documents later ,late in the 1850.During Iancu de Hunedoara, for his brave deeds against Turkish., king Vladislav I of Hungary, it will reward him for this with many villages around Deva. So,Iancu of Hunedoara receives in 1440 many gifts ,among them Soimus and Paulis. In the Corvin’s domination time, in 1459,Soimus appears in documents with the title of “oppidum”(market),fact that demonstrate the special development of the village. In 20 February 1465,Matei Corvin, king of Hungary gives Soimus, Barsau and Cainel villages to Ioan Ungur from Nadastie and thereby also to his father and his brothers Ladislau and Nicolae and descendants and heirs of them. With the Soimus market were donated also the villages and desolate places belonging to it.After the villages were given in 1465 they were given back to the royal crown, in 1506 king Vladislav  The second donates to Beatrice,Ioan Corvin’s widow (natural son of king Matei Corvin) and to his daughter Elisabeta, the most part of the estates to his ex husband, because Corvins family possessions , after the death of Cristofor, the only male descendant in line of Ioan Corvin, returned crown. Between donated villages were Bejan,Cainelu de Jos, Fornadia, Sulighete and Soimus.

Archaeological finds - Important archaeological finds were made on the territory of village Soimus, fact that attests the existence of a human settlements since prehistory.
Bejan - here were discovered two axes of andesite , polished and perforated ,belonging  to Cotofeni Culture, also were discovered roman marks. On the outskirts ,in border with Deva, is found a mine that was exploited in roman era.
Boholt - on the territory of this village are many points where were discovered archeological materials ,from prehistory and until medieval period. On the top of Ciuta hill, was discovered a settlement belonging to the Cotofeni Culture, also element from early bronze era. Shards  belonging also to Cotofeni Culture,were discovered on Magulicea hill. In village is signaled also a settlement belonging to the Petresti culture. From roman era, on the border of the village ,to Soimus, were discovered marks of a roman construction. From the border of the town ,are coming medieval archeological materials. Also on the territory of Boholt village were discovered 22 medieval coins ,from 17th century.                                                                                    
Cainelul de Jos - a polished stone axe was discovered in the border of the village. From roman era were discovered traces of pavements and coins. These traces attest the existence of a miner settlement from gold mines in the area. In the centre of the village is a roman settlement.
Soimus -  in many points of the village were found important archeological remains. In the border of the village , at 300 metres west of point Teleghi, is signed a settlement belonging to Turdas culture with elements  of Vinca ,but also Cotofeni.A settlement of type Cotofeni was discovered in the point Avicola.  In point Cuculeu, from the border of the village was searched a settlement belonging to the early bronze era.A archeological station with complex stratigraphy  it was unveiled in Teleghi point ,located on the edge of the terrace on the right bank of Mures. Here were discovered ceramic materials from bronze era(Wietenberg culture),early hallstattiens ,roman and a fragment of inscription. On the border of the village were discovered archeological traces from roman era. From here is comes a dacic coin of Radulesti-Hunedoara type.
Traditional occupations –After the Austrians conquers in the end of 17th century Transilvania, these will intensify the exploitation of provincial riches ,fact that will generate an increase in the obligation of the transilvan population. On the base of conscription made by the Austrian authorities in 1727,finds the villages of Soimus contained between 10-38 households., the majority of the inhabitants been serfs and peasants. In a report of the authorities in 1770 shows that the inhabitants of Cainel,Chiscadaga, Sulighete, and Tarnavita dealt with earth work and with tree work, the ones in Fornadia dealt also with pig raise fattened with acorn. Inhabitants from Boholt, Paulis, and Soimus , beside tree work and earth work, dealt also with rafting. Rafting was a base occupation for the inhabitants in the villages located along the both docks of Mures river. In medieval period, the most common good transported on Mures was the salt extracted  from the mines in Turda and Uioara, which was taken to Szeghedin. Beside salt on Mures were transported iron ore, cereals, timber and stone used for construction. Salt was the most precious load coming down on Mures. At Soimus was a big storage of salt, second after the one in Partos (Alba Iulia),from where was made the supply of salt of the lands of Zarand,Halmagiu,Deva and Hunedoara.. The population on the docks of Mures was forced to participate to shipment of salt ,or carry with carts , or be entering among royal sailors. In 1771 were 5 sailors at Soimus,4 at Boholt,11 at Paulis; in 1774 were 7 in Boholt, 15 in Soimus and 25 in Paulis; in 1777 were 7 in Boholt, 8 in Soimus, 18 in Paulis;in 1810 were 5 in Boholt and 11 in Paulis. Another occupation that the documents attest was the preparation of charcoal. In 1767 county officials put in mind to the deputy mayor of Chimindia to recover outstanding tax between 1761-1764 that had the charcoal burners from Cainel. Otherwise the animals of the village officials will be confiscated until the accomplishment of the outstanding amount. Maintaining military in the household population was a difficult job for inhabitants , they had the obligation to feed them and accommodate them. That period of time documents shows many abuses made by soldiers that stayed in Soimus and other villages.

Participation in the rebellion of Horia , Closca si Crisan - Many serfs tasks ,plus abuses of nobility and authorities caused deep dissatisfaction along peasants, which will culminate with the big rebellion in 1784, headed by Horea , Closca  and Crisan. Erupted in Zarand lands, the rebellion spread rapidly to Abrud mountains and to Mures Valley. The events from Zarand, move the villages from Hunedoara county. Peasants advancing on Caian valley, in Sulighete stealing from Iosif Magulitsi, in Chiscadaga from Nicolae and Iosif Markotsan and another two. Move every villages in the way and reached Mures. They first storm Branisca and Soimus, the ones in Branisca will move down on Mures, the ones in Soimus will move up on Mures.In Soimus the rebels appeared on 4 november. The rebellions stormed the on households ,on houses of Ludovic Bartsay, Adam Bethlen’s , of Hollaki,Goro, Alexe Noptsa,Francisc Brandi,Stefan Vadas and of others. The disaster kept three or four days, the rebellions broke windows and doors, destroyed and stole barns, granary, they took everything. They stole wines. From Ludovic Bartsay’s stable they tooke the most beautiful horses from the stables that counted 70 horses. They stole also from priest Mihail Teleki with wife and three children , with his sister and her daughter. The priest escaped hidden in the vineyards of Soimus, then in the house of salt governer. Inkeepers noble Goro,Danila Suciu complained that his house was stole and burned. On 5 november ,at dawn ,a part of the rebellions move to Harau, and the ones remained in Soimus move on 6 November ,early in the morning, to Mintia.In the days of 6 and 7 november 1784,The insurgent peasants attack Deva’s Citadel where many nobles were refugees,at these event participating also inhabitants from villages of Soimus. The peasants were rejected ,noble’s revenge and atrocious executions against them, not intimidating them ,which will continue their actions. The climax of the rebellion will be the ultimatum addressed by the peasants ,nobles from Deva. The ultimatum was a letter addressed to the supreme committee and to the Hunedoara’ s committee by the head office of salt from Soimus,Carol Bruneck.The letter was written by him under threat of death by three officials of  peasants ,coming to tell the nobles of Deva,as delegate of Horea , his and people’s condition of peace. The three peasants were Giurgiu Marcu and Ion Abrudean from Criscior and Petru Abrudean from Ruda.This truth program of the rebellion demanded the abolition of the nobility and of the feudal property ,ascribing the territory fully to peasants. The ultimatum was the most important document of the rebellion, the most common, the most synthetic.  His generality gives it a historical capital prestige. A vision of a moment, from the top of triumph ,but throwing a vivid ray of light to future. After the unsuccessful attack against the citadel, many peasants from around Deva are arrested , between them been also seven peasants, caught at Soimus:Borza Ianes,Suciu Danila, But Tanase, Suciu Loga, Veres Gheorghe, Maier Urs and Sabo Armeanca.After the execution of rebellion heads from Alba Iulia, the series sentence continued with other convictions, among them also Lupu Lucaciu from Sulighete, condemned to death, his head will be put in spike, and the body on wheel. Mihai Lupas from Cainel, because participated at the devastation of baron Iosika’s castle from Branisca,he was sentenced to death.Although defeated ,the Rebellion in 1784 will produce in the next decades major restlessness along nobility. Fear of a new rebellion spread again between nobles in 1790.On 6 April 1790 Hunedoara county sends a letter his sub-prefects asking them to gather the noble in some locations to prevent a new rise of the peasants.For the area beyond Mures,the assembly centre it was going to be in Soimus.

Participation at The Revolution in 1848 - The Revolution in 1848 from Transilvania, lead by Avram Iancu will contain in his  development area ,Soimus’s area too. In time of revolution, in the lead of Hunedoara county is installed a Romanian functionary –Dimitrie Moldovan-which will have at Soimus an inspector, in person of George Tabacariu.He dealt with administrative-military problems , organize communication between Deva and Brad on Caian’s valley, leads the observation pickets that will watch the crossing to Mures and the road to Brad.At 17 January 1849, George Tabacariu wrote from Soimus to Dimitrie Moldovan, about Magyar revolutionary’s moves at Valisoara. In the same letter he showed that he organized the crossing of troops over Mures at Soimus and he asks sending of people in order to curb an attack from Dealu Mare.Shows,also, the situation of the observational pickets from Dealu Mare,subordinate to.A month later,on 26 february ,G. Tabacariu asks D.Moldovan to send him 70-80 rifleman that cross Mures to Soimus. In the camp from Dealu Mare ,wrote further G. Tabacariu,from where just came Avram Suciu and Simion Dumitru from Chiscadaga,are only 100 rifleman,too few to handle an attack.A day later, G. Tabacariu write to D.Moldovan from Deva,to send immediate hunters come from Hateg and asked by previous later from the evening of 26 february.In a last letter of inspector G.Tabacariu from 23 march 1849 ,he informs D.Moldovan about ongoing military operations in the Brad area, showing that from Soimus were sent up on Caian, some lancers to join those from Dealu Mare camp.
The Revolution in 1848-1848 from Transilvania,had a very important influence in the further evolution of social life,but mostly nationally from this area…In 1851 appears first sigils of villages with the legend in Romanian language and with symbols related to local realities ,refered to occupations,historical tradion, village names.So,Soimus has on sigil drawn a ship signifying ancient occupation of inhabitants as sailors on Mures,Cainelu a spade,a grabe and crossed sickle ,Bejan a stork, at Sulighete appears a beehive,at Paulis an arm with a sword ,symbol of bravery in battle ,at Fornadia wheelchair plug ,at Chiscadaga a goat(Baneasa F. Vinelu-Monografia comunei Soimus,1978)

Participation at Great Union in 1918- Another major event attended by inhabitants of Soimus was The Major Union in 1 decembrie 1918.In the days leading up to the unification , in all Transilvania were made councils and national guards , emerging in Romanian administration, process that will get many difficulties from old authorities. In members lists of national Romanian guard in 1918,we find 15 inhabitants from Sulighete ,12 from Fornadie , 9 from Cainel ,8 from Bejan,8 from Chiscadaga. From Fornadia, Petru Suteu and Ion Parva received credentials for participation at meeting as delegates elected. After the election meeting of the two, the population applause and shout: ,,Live Big Romania”. Many inhabitants from the village participated at the big event in 1 December 1918 from Alba Iulia. So, to the meeting were sent adhesions ,with signatures of hundred and thousand of people from Fornadia(200),Sulighete(118)Tarnavita(92)Chiscadaga(62)Bejan(50),Cainel